J. Neurosci. It is possible that a comparative lack of functional availability of androgens during development, for example, through changes in either the androgen receptor or based on inhibitory effects of other molecules, such as glucocorticoids and oxytocin, may help to explain some of the unique traits that have emerged in socially monogamous mammals. Vasopressin also plays a major role in defensive behaviors such as mate guarding. J. Neuroinflamm. Trends Cogn. Getz, L. L., and Carter, C. S. (1996). Hormones Behav. Similar findings emerged in other apparently monogamous mammals including humans, and most species of birds. 55, 410–434. Aggress. doi: 10.1007/BF00299829, Getz, L. L., Mcguire, B., Pizzuto, T., Hofmann, J. E., and Frase, B. The mating system of the prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster- field and laboratory evidence for pair bonding. 0000006973 00000 n Neuroendocrinol. Science 197, 215–223. �F���e�r�yG�+��l` doi: 10.1086/285134, Winslow, J. T., Hastings, N., Carter, C. S., Harbaugh, C. R., and Insel, T. R. (1993). Horm. Some of the main conclusions of the occurrence of monogamy in mammals include:[6]. Assembling the puzzle: pathways of oxytocin signaling in the brain. Castration reduces male testosterone, estradiol, and territorial aggression, but not paternal behavior in biparental dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli). 119, 22–38. There are several factors that are associated with Type II monogamy: One of the key factors of monogamous pairings is group living. ]�e�6����5S��^�W���]�p��Z�.+�8�جI�r#�$�grYB��D�j�ĝ��,Y0��s��iU���}�}n�ԑ�OWuQŌ��:4;�n�ھ�ի���!&������xw��)�-6�N6��cK��P!�KaD����o�!��H�R^'u��H��7�D�ĸS����8�(���ٛ�/dD�uu�b�m$!��� Om��T���[email protected]�t*��xW;xc�7+G��\z�he�������پ� n:1���'y���K?��b���Ui�۲�Qt5Q��9#����X�Y���,X3��F�˩k�2i!�u{���:����jA�J�D��vop�j��E�?�+ However, with a few exceptions (Kleiman, 1977; Klein and Nelson, 1997; Roberts et al., 1998), we caution that evidence for this aspect of social monogamy seems to be primarily anecdotal, possibly based on visual observations by field biologists, rather than systematic measurements of body size or genital anatomy. doi: 10.1016/0091-3057(90)90042-G, Young, K. A., Gobrogge, K. L., Liu, Y., and Wang, Z. X. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23884, Arrowsmith, S., and Wray, S. (2014). Interactions among paternal behavior, steroid hormones, and parental experience in male marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii). It is possibly that estrogen could have effects on different receptors or actions on other brain regions, for example playing a role in the regulation of the oxytocin receptor. Central and peripheral effects of oxytocin administration in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Mating facilitates pair bond formation (Williams et al., 1992), and also releases oxytocin (Carter, 1992; Ross et al., 2009b). Ecol. In addition, testosterone, in the presence of the aromatase enzyme, can be converted to an estrogen. Beery and colleagues argue that the upregulation of oxytocin receptors in the central amygdala of the social tuco-tuco may be the mechanism that allows this species to form long-term extended social living groups through a decrease in aggression and social anxiety. 0000004829 00000 n doi: 10.1177/1073858417708284, Carter, C. S. (1992). Klopfer, P. H. (1971). Oxytocin and sexual behavior. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors. 0000042297 00000 n Psychoneuroendocrinology 38, 306–309. The capacity to experience reproductive and juvenile growth suppression is not limited to socially monogamous species, but may be especially apparent in species that carry the traits of social monogamy. 40, 32–42. 0000001156 00000 n In P. californicus, paternal behavior appears to be controlled by estradiol via its aromatization from testosterone. (2003). Behav. Dev. What's in a name? In species such as Kirk's dik-dik (Madoqua kirkii) and elephant shrew (Elephantulus rufescens), biparental care is not very common. Processes 132, 66–75. Acad. Spatial patterns in 2 syntopic species of microtines - microtus ochrogaster and Synaptomys cooperi. Horm. Emerging from those studies was evidence that prairie voles were sharing nests in long term pairs, generally remaining together for life. <]>> 0000000951 00000 n doi: 10.1037/0735-7036.113.4.388, Cushing, B. S. (2016). Two molecules were hypothesized to be implicated in pair-bonding behavior: oxytocin and vasopressin. Some individuals were sexually monogamous, but when viewed at the level of a species, sexual monogamy was rare or non-existent. 79, 2036–2040. Furthermore, monogamous mating system and female dispersion are found to be closely related. And humans aren't the only animals to take advantage of monogamy. 0000033724 00000 n J. Compar. "The purpose of love is survival and reproduction," says Carter. [2] Monogamy usually does not occur in groups where there is a high abundance of females, but rather in ones where females occupy small ranges. As is discussed in depth later in this review, there is also a great deal of intraspecies variation in displays of monogamy behaviors in both mammalian and avian species. Under some environmental conditions, social monogamy can morph into cooperative breeding and colonies, but, at least in rodents, at the core of these it is common to find one primary breeding pair (Solomon and French, 1997). Microtus ochrogaster. U.S.A. 105, 1249–1254. Dewsbury, D. A. 117, 455–463. Get in touch with us at [email protected]. Consequently, Weckerly (1998) concluded that mating systems do affect the extent of sexual dimorphism, with sexual dimorphism being reduced in long-term pair bonding. Based on research in laboratory rodents, it has been assumed that the creation of a typical male phenotype (especially external masculinization) requires the relative absence of high levels of stress and associated glucocorticoids, which can inhibit masculinization (Ward and Ward, 1985). Neural and behavioral substrates affected by oxytocin, vasopressin, androgens and estrogens, and interactions among these, regulate social behaviors in each of these species.