Received 15 June 2017 In comparison to the thin-film type and silicon wafer type, in general the former is approximately 10 times that of the current production capacity of the latter. You will only need to do this once. To find out more, see our, Browse more than 100 science journal titles, Read the very best research published in IOP journals, Read open access proceedings from science conferences worldwide, Shandong Institute of Advanced Technology, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Summer Placement – Cyber and Information Systems Division, Graduate – Counter Terrorism and Security Division. Monocrystalline silicon, more often called single-crystal silicon, in short mono c-Si or mono-Si, is the base material for silicon-based discrete components and integrated circuits used in virtually all modern electronic equipment. Instrum., 76, 045108. Figure 5Brazilian disc test for a load along the [011] direction used to determine stress-optical parameters for a (100)-silicon wafer. (A) Layering of conductive adhesive, (B) integrated solar panel, and (C) the BIPVT layers for assembly. B. Sproul, M. A. This deviation does not occur upon determination of ΔBI and ΔBII in an eigenvalue analysis in this work. R. H. Hall, J. H. Racette: J. Appl. Stat. Neumann, K. E.: Die Gesetze der Doppelbrechung des Lichts in comprimirten oder ungleichförmig erwärmten unkrystallinischen Körpern, Ann. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. G. Dresselhaus, A. F. Kip, C. Kittel: Phys. The most preferred technology in PV market is the wafer-based technology and more than 85% of the world PV market uses this type of cells. The derivation of the stress-optical law from He et al. It describes a change in the indices of refraction of a material when the material is mechanically loaded. Phys., 273, 269–305, https://doi.org/10.1002/andp.18892730604, 1889. a, b, c, d, e, Pockels, F.: Lehrbuch der Kristalloptik, 1st Edn., B. G. Teubner, Leipzig, Thus the reduction of the red zone and the damage inside the seeds is important for seed recycling. In 1954, Bell Labs claimed the successful development of the first silicon wafer solar cell, which showed luminous efficiency of 6%. z� �V"�q��S� 0�YR��Z)����^�����O�w��i����wS��gե�. However, due to the measurement principal, the sign of the measured retardation value can not be determined. (2019), has been carried out in this field in recent years. Phys. A schematic illustration of the developed BIPVT panel is shown in Fig. For a p-type c-Si substrate, an n-type top layer, while for an n-type c-Si substrate, a p-type top layer acts as emitter through a thermal diffusion. Accordingly, the stress-optical parameters πij(V) in Voigt notation are related to the stress-optical coefficients πijkl in tensor notation by the following equation: In order to account for different crystalline orientations of silicon, a rotation matrix Rij is introduced. Figure 3Orientation of the indicatrix on a {100}-silicon wafer to describe the birefringence with reference to the global (x, y, z) coordinate system where the x–y plane is located on the [001] plane. With the subsequent development of integrated circuits, this type of solar cell has been predominant on the market; its market share has never fallen below 80%. In comparison to models given in the literature, the stress-optical law derived in this work shows a close resemblance in shape to the work of Liang et al. of Silicon Reviewed in E. Horn, G., Lesniak, J., Mackin, T., and Boyce, B.: Infrared grey-field Phys., 96, 3103–3109, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1774259, 2004. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, Hecht, E.: Optik, 7th Edn., De Gruyter, Berlin, Boston, https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110526653, 2018. a, Herms, M., Irmer, G., Kupka, G., and Wagner, M.: The Photo‐Elastic Constant Critical performance differences of monocrystalline versus polycrystalline germanium for optical applications Date: 02/06/13 Contributors: D. Hibbard, B. Neff, B. Reinbolt, R. Klinger, M. Stout Introduction Germanium (Ge) is a useful optical material over the mid-wave and long-wave infrared wavelength region. The results demonstrate the potential photonic applications of 3C-SiC and its heterogeneous integration into the Si industry. (27) was carried out. In Fig. 8, retardation δ based on Eq. (27) is shown for a normalized wafer thickness t and a normalized stress difference GG, TH and SS offered advice on the article as well as reviewing it and recommending corrections. endstream endobj 74 0 obj <> endobj 75 0 obj <> endobj 76 0 obj <>stream The grey field polariscope uses circularly polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range. Also, the angle-dependent isotropic coefficients C(ϕ) based on Eq. (3) for each measurement are plotted. silicon, Class. E. Barta, G. Lux: J. Phys. Also a wide variety of optical enhancement schemes featuring nanostructured surfaces and nanoscale components achieving levels of optical absorption and photocurrents close to the theoretical maximum for crystalline silicon are reviewed. Miyamura et al. stream The stress-optical coefficients were determined to be Nuovo Cimento, C. Jacoboni, R. Minder, G. Majni: J. Phys. Monocrystalline silicon solar cells are the most popular and oldest technology made from pure silicon on thin wafers of silicon. Solids. Lett. (2010), Jagailloux et al. [21.5]); seminal papers are cited throughout Sect. There are also several choices of how the arrays can be mounted. Lett. Photoelasticity was a key method to determine stresses by building models out of photoelastically active materials. MS derived the analytical models, devised the experiments, performed the experiments and wrote the article. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Phys. Rev. C. Canali, C. Jacoboni, F. Nava, G. Ottaviani, A. Alberigi Quaranta: Phys. The cleaning or damage removal is vital in silicon solar cell growth to avoid recombination issues. I. G. Kirnas, P. M. Kurilo, P. G. Litovchenko, V. S. Lutsyak, V. M. Nitsovich: Phys. By adding germanium, phonon scattering at point defects further reduces the thermal conductivity, and polySiGe with 30% Ge achieves a thermal conductivity of 3 W/mK (i.e. Rev. Abstract. Revisions: 1 Production costs are often deeply affected by production scale, and solar cells are no exception. By virtue of its remarkable electrical and optical characteristics, silicon is used in countless industrial, consumer, optical, computer, and power generation applications. Therefore, the change in the indices of refraction can be expressed by subtracting Eq. (15b) from Eq. (15a). This type of silicon is used in rooftop and space applications. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. The parameters were determined to be (π11-π12)=14.4⋅10-7 MPa−1 and π44=9.4⋅10-7 MPa−1. 100 0 obj <>stream Confidence intervals for the measurement of wafer angles were assumed to be ±1∘ at a 95 % confidence level. endstream endobj startxref Yes, Gerard Colston and Maksym Myronov 2017 Semicond. 2.1. Published 4 October 2017, Method: Single-blind Sampson, A., Marcus, M. A., Lai, B., Morhenn, H., Hahn, G., Bagdahn, J., and If we only consider the market power of more than 1 kW, then this figure can almost reach 100%. The required process engineering for translation from laboratory scale devices to manufacturable large-area solar cells that can compete with bulk silicon solar cells and up-and-coming thin-film solar cells will be challenging. In the following, Voigt notation will be indicated by (V). In the literature, this ellipsoid is commonly called an index ellipsoid or an indicatrix. GaAs) to form solar modules that can operate under even more extreme mechanical deformations. Chem., 130, 449–476. Mechanical Compression and Dilatation, Philos. Mineralog., 43, 249–262, 1958. a, b, He, S., Zheng, T., and Danyluk, S.: Analysis and determination of the stress-optic coefficients of thin single crystal silicon samples, J. Appl. For this case, the models show the expected direction-independent stress-optical constant, as is shown in Fig. 10. S. M. Sze, J. C. Irvin: Solid State Electron. 73 0 obj <> endobj A. G. Samoilovich, I. To estimate the confidence level of the fitted parameters, a Monte Carlo simulation for the non-linear fit of Eq. P. A. Shumann, R. P. Phillips: Solid State Electron. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. 21.2. Electron. Crystalline silicon is also called as the first-generation PV technology where the wafer-based crystalline silicon is used as the active material. Glass Sci., 6, 419–427, https://doi.org/10.1111/ijag.12106, 2015. a, Wolf, H.: Spannungsoptik: Ein Lehr- und Nachschlagebuch für Forschung, Schnabel, R., and Lück, H.: Birefringence measurements on crystalline Monocrystalline silicon is the base material of the electronics industry. 8 June 2005 Optical and structural properties of monocrystalline silicon wafers modified by compression plasma flow.