Titanic. They are in relaxation mode and vegging out; they don't want to make choices. Male characters may also be looked at, but it is still a male viewpoint. Ien Ang detailed that media producers have an imaginary entity in mind before the construction of a media product. theories of cultural industries including those of Hesmondhalgh. Advertisers work to give certain products a shared cultural meaning to make them desirable. Researchers have identified a number of common motives for media consumption. Generation of ideas, images and/or solutions. wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn, Creativity is a mental and social process involving the discovery of new ideas or concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts. Resolution: Whatever the problem was is sorted out and all is well again. He identifies 8 ‘types’ of characters common in stories: Hero (protagonist) has a mission of quest to complete  (e.g.Luke Skywalker), Villain (antagonist) tries to stop the hero                      (Darth Vader), Princess love interest and/or object of the quest       (Princess Leia), Father person with knowledge                                                          (Leia), Dispatcher sends the hero off                                                            (Obi Wan), Donor gives the hero something to help him                                (Obi Wan), Sidekick the helper (not as handsome as hero) –poss. The media has historically limited the representations of gay men and women. Lippmann – representation theory. Saris - The term ‘Auteur Theory’ originated from Andrews Sarris’s essay ‘Notes on the Auteur Theory’ in 1962. The Benefits of Business to Business Partnerships, Audit Theories - Theories of Demand for Audit, Management Principles: Principle of Bureaucracy, Keynesian and Classical Economists Views about Disequilibrium, Modern Portfolio Theory – Markowitz Portfolio Selection Model. She believes that the female gaze is negated, or ‘drowned out’ by the dominant male gaze. Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. Stanley Cohen defines 'Moral Panic' as "... a mass response to a group, a person or an attitude that becomes defined as a threat to society." The relative salience of an issue determines its place within the public agenda, which in turn influences public policy creation. Cyber dystopias centre around the principles of the individual losing control, becoming dependent and being unable to stop change. This theory states that consumers use the media to satisfy specific needs or desires. Superiority, Domination & Body Language: Men are shown in dominant positions; appear to be reflective of thought and intelligence.
  • Reception theory … Professors at Fordham University have formed an association of McLuhan-influenced scholars. Framework. Tim O'Reilly - inventor of term 'Web 2.0'. Butler suggests that gender is not the result of nature but is socially constructed e.g. Other critics give the power to the studios and their production schemes to keep genres alive. The pervasiveness of these formats means that our culture uses the style and content of these shows as ways to interpret reality. The Soviet reporter loathes the American’s association with a “corrupt”, “venal”, “irresponsible press” controlled by special interests. Genres have clear, stable identities and borders. The now largely discredited direct effects model of media studies assumes that media audiences passively accept media messages and exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages. The new specifications from 2017 are very specific about the theorists that students need to have an understanding of. An extension of this is a fourth reading called the aberrant reading, where a completely unintentional meaning is taken away by audiences. Lanier argues that Web 2.0 developments have retarded progress and innovation and glorified the collective at the expense of the individual. Emotional security - we all keep seeking it; Reassurance of worth - In a connected world we can lose sense of who we are and what we are worth. This links to the work of the Bandura Bobo Doll experiment (Media Effects Theory). First, it is very unclear to what extent the theory can be held to apply to public broadcasting, which now accounts for a large part of media activity in many societies. "Audiences only exist as an imaginary entity, an abstraction, constructed from the vantage point of institution, in the interest of the institution." ', Nielsen – Lean Forward ‘On the Web, users are engaged and want to go places and get things done. Subcultures = Youths to express themselves and to challenge hegemony (Mostly through style). Today the authoritarian system of the press is still in operation in many parts of the world. All new items of information are based on preceding ones, and they are "new" ... By examining the motives behind the consumption of a particular form of media, researchers can better understand both the reasons for that medium’s popularity and the roles that the medium fills in society. The purpose of the author in this is typically to keep the audience guessing, arresting the enigma, until the final scenes when all is revealed and all loose ends are tied off and closure is achieved. We’ve designed a system that discards us.”. The main feature of the democratic-participant theory relates to the needs, interests and aspirations of the active “receive?’ in a political society. The audience is now the producer. Scholars have developed many different approaches and theories to figure this out. Cultural Code: (referential code) Something that is read with understanding due to cultural awareness (e.g. Viewers are encouraged to identify with the protagonist of the film who, more often than not, is a man.