has no natural but only man-made lakes? If he merely puts his savings in a stocking, like the proverbial French peasant, it is obvious that they do not give employment. We have the technology and infrastructure to greatly reduce the forced workload of the average human, and that should be our goal—to liberate people from excessive work so that they can freely pursue the things that bring them intrinsic joy and happiness.”, Oil painting of Bertrand Russell by Roger Fry (colors changed), 1923. Poverty is one of the main causes of the country’s poor education record and has affected participation in education in more ways than one. to this extent, the duty of work must be admitted, but to this extent only. It cultivated the arts and discovered the sciences; it wrote the books, invented the philosophies, and refined social relations. It will also ensure a greater focus of human intelligence, which there seems to be a great deal of, in Pakistan, on furthering the human knowledge, and, as Russell states: “Above all, there will be happiness and joy of life, instead of frayed nerves, weariness, and dyspepsia.”. they ought to work.” People nowadays are less frank, but the sentiment persists, and is the source of much economic confusion. Suppose that, at a given moment, a certain number of people are engaged in the manufacture of pins. There is no longer any reason why the bulk of the population should suffer this deprivation; only a foolish asceticism, usually vicarious, makes us continue to insist on work in excessive quantities now that the need no longer exists. A man who has worked long hours all his life will become bored if he becomes suddenly idle. The second kind is capable of indefinite extension: there are not only those who give orders, but those who give advice as to what orders should be given. Russell proposes that the post-WWI workday could reasonably have been reduced to four hours, and that this would have allowed everyone to work, while still supplying the necessities of life for all and greatly reducing the collective amount of time/energy expended. The men still work eight hours, there are too many pins, some employers go bankrupt, and half the men previously concerned in making pins are thrown out of work. Neither of these motives makes any great appeal to the actual worker. The other is the new pleasure in mechanism, which makes us delight in the astonishingly clever changes that we can produce on the earth’s surface. If you ask him what he thinks the best part of his life, he is not likely to say, “I enjoy manual work because it makes me feel that I am fulfilling man’s noblest task, and because I like to think how much man can transform his planet. If he invests his savings the matter is less obvious, and different cases arise. And yet, the average dud(ette) on the Allies’ team was actually better off than any time before or since. Teachers will not be exasperatedly struggling to teach by routine things which they learned in their youth, which may, in the interval, have been proved to be untrue. Like most of my generation, I was brought up on the saying: 'Satan finds some mischief for idle hands to do.' It might produce one Darwin, but against him had to be set tens of thousands of country gentlemen who never thought of anything more intelligent than fox-hunting and punishing poachers. No wonder the result has been disastrous. However, Russell contends that a considerable amount of leisure is necessary to enjoy “many of the best things” in life. A large country, full of natural resources, awaits development, and has has to be developed with very little use of credit. Locked out of your account? Huge portions of humanity spend their days balancing someone else’s checkbook, or trying to sell people shit that they don’t need, or trying to come up with more effective ways to manipulate people into valuing their “brand,” or moving boxes around on a digital screen to make the display more aesthetically pleasing, or talking on the phone with people who are dissatisfied with a product that they didn’t need in the first place, etc. I’ve been thinking about this lately, so very timely post. If he invests his savings, the matter is less obvious, and different cases arise. This is perhaps one of the most elaborate deceptions in history—this conditioning of the masses to want to work tirelessly in order to survive, all the while padding the pockets of a small group of elite. Academic institutions, therefore, useful as they are, are not adequate guardians of the interests of civilization in a world where everyone outside their walls is too busy for unutilitarian pursuits.